ISSN 2321–3647
Sun, 19 Nov 2017

The Significance and Importance of Trace Elements in the Functioning of Thyroid Gland

RevathyKuppusamy1, DhananjayanRangan2, Swaminathan Selvanayagam3*

1. Junior Technical Officer, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095.

2. Consultant, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Specialty Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095.

3. Senior Consultant and Head, Department of Biochemistry, Apollo Speciality Hospitals, Ayanambakkam, Chennai 600 095


Trace elements are essential for health, growth and functioning of a number of components of the immune system. They are very important for a number of enzymes and proteins which are involved in many physiological and biochemical processes related to growth, production and reproduction. There are many trace elements which are associated with thyroid function, among which Iodine is very important  as it is the source for thyroid hormones synthesis . Selenium-containing enzymes protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress and the selenium-based proteins help to regulate hormone synthesis, converting T4 into the more accessible and active T3. These proteins and enzymes help to regulate metabolism and maintain the right amount of thyroid hormones in the organs where it is being used. Similarly trace elements like zinc, iron and copper are vital for thyroid function. In this review, we have summarized all information available on the role of trace elements for the functioning of Thyroid gland. Some trace elements showed increased concentration in malignant and benign thyroid nodules and therefore, those trace elements can also be used as markers of thyroid cancers.

Keywords: Iodine, Selenium, Zinc, Iron, Copper, Thyroid hormones.

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