ISSN 2321–3647
Sun, 24 Sep 2017

Urinary tract infections in Maiduguri-city, Nigeria: a 2005-2009 clinical survey of Fluoroquinolones Activities against Staphylococcus Aureus acting as second most isolated Etiological Pathogens.

John David Ohieku1*, Rilwanu Aminu Magaji1

1.Departmen of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria


ABSTRACT

The increasing resistances to several antibiotic classes have forced pressures on fluoroquinolones (FQs) use. Even among FQs, resistances are growing due to rapid spreading of adaptive measures. We investigated Staphylococcus aureus urinary tract infections (UTIs) to understand its infectivity patterns, sensitivity trends to FQs, multi-fluoroquinolone resistant patterns, and fluoroquinolones’ interactivity relations from January 2005 to December 2009. 211 (13.3%) Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from 1590 urine cultured samples having its peak infectivity in 2006 with 28.4% and least proportion (10.9%) in 2005.  Staph aureus UTIs were higher in women (41.7%) than men (20.4%) in those between 10 and 30 years, but beyond this age range, this trend was reversed (16.6% for men and 3.3% for women). The overall activities of the FQs during the 5 years periods range from 41% in norfloxacin to 85% in ofloxacin and resistance rates of the pathogen have out-grown sensitivity for norfloxacin and nalidixic acid. Age dependent increase in resistance was correlated for ciprofloxacin (P=0.003) and norfloxacin (P<0.01) up to 50 and 60 years respectively and overall resistance change (23.9% in 2005 to 47.1 in 2009) of FQs was found to be significant (P<0.01). The activities of ciprofloxacin against norfloxacin-resistant and pefloxacin-resistant Staph aureus were consistently higher than ofloxacin (P<0.005 and P<0.05 respectively). Co-fluoroquinolone-resistant Staph aureus increased from 8.7% in 2005 to 24.1% in 2009. Most ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin resistant Staph aureus UTI may have no suitable alternative among the quinolones currently in use in the region, necessitating the need for the introduction of newer quinolones.

Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, Staph aureus UTI, Urinary Tract Infection, uropathogenic Staphylococcus aureus, norfloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Ciprofloxacin, Fluoroquionolones


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